The beautiful student’s t test probability algorithm

G Rob Burgess

Years back I made a program that let you perform the student’s t test in a web browser, back when java was young and java web applets were the thing. Most of the program was easy to write, but there was no built in function for getting the probability that two samples came from different populations for a given t score and degrees of freedom.
We used to look these probabilities up on tables, and although the student’s t distribution is pretty straightforward, integrating the probability density function to get the probability did not look like fun. Although it would disappoint my physics advisor to say so, gamma functions scare me. I’m working on getting over it.
I couldn’t and I still can’t find much on the web on a nice algorithm for getting the probability, but I found a free to use library that did that so I used that. It was closed source, so I couldn’t really see how it was done.
After a bit of searching a found a book “Statistical Computing in Pascal” (D. Cooke, A.H. Craven, G.M. Clarke; 1985, London) which had a very nice algorithm involving finite series and was exact. I still can’t find much on this so I am reproducing it here.
Given a t-score of t and degrees of freedom k, we define
θ = tan − 1(t ⁄ (k))
then probability p is
p = (1)/(2)(1 + A)
where if k = 1
A = (2θ)/(π)
and if k > 1and odd
A = (2)/(π)θ + sinθcosθ + (2)/(3)cos3θ + … + (2⋅4⋅…(k − 3))/(3⋅5⋅…(k − 2))cosk − 2θ
and if k is even
A = sinθ1 + (1)/(2)cos2θ + (1⋅3)/(2⋅4)cos4θ + … + (1⋅3⋅…(k − 3))/(2⋅4⋅…(k − 2))cosk − 2θ
The nice thing is if you look at the above series for A you see that each term for both series differs by a factor of (n − 1)/(n)cos2θ up to k − 2 so for the algorithm you just carry a term through a loop, multiplying it by a factor and then summing it.
Here is the actual algorithm, in some sort of baloney pseudocode:
pseudocode for a funtion to return a probability p
given a t-score t and degrees of freedom k
	term (float) for carrying running term
	sum (float) sum of terms for final p
	theta (float) a mishmash of t and k
	i (integer) index for the while loop
function stprob(t,k)
	term = k
	theta = arctan(t/sqrt(k))
	sum = 0.0
	if k > 1 then
		if (k is odd) then
			i = 3
			term = cos(theta)
			i = 2
			term = 1.0
		sum = sum + term
		while (i < k) do
			term = term * [cos(theta)]^2 * (i-1)/i
			sum = sum + term
			i = i + 2
		sum = sum * sin(theta)
	if (k is odd) then sum = (2/pi) * (sum + theta)
	p = 0.5 * (1 + sum)
return p	
So that’s it, enjoy!