How to obscure your message.

    © Kathryn Tosney
    Chair of Biology
    The University of Miami

Tosney home page
Society for Developmental Biology

6. Avoid emphasis.

Visually de-emphasize substance.

    Think small

    Try for homogeneity

Portray the main points in the tiniest type.

Make all figures so small that the important information is invisible two feet away.

On graphs, use thin lines or bars with similar patterns.

Avoid color highlighting: think gray.

To avoid emphasizing any one element: mount each paragraph, heading and figure on its own piece of board.

Then separate each board by the same amount of space. If done with care, it will not be obvious which legend goes with which figure.

The effect will be pure monotony


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