aCross Development

a crossword puzzle study guide to Gilbert's Developmental Biology, 5th edition

© Kathryn Tosney
Professor of Biology
The University of Michigan

ktosney@umich.edu


Puzzle 1


Blank puzzle #1


TOP


Across


Down


    1 one of the advances vital to the evolution of the amniote egg was the development of four _ _ _s, the yolk _ _ _ , amnion, chorion and allantois, which nourish and protect the embryo and interface with the exterior environment

    5 the fertilized egg

    8 blas_o_eres are cells formed during cleavage; a fla_wor_ is acoelomate

    9 the Dictyostelium slug, formed by myxamoeba that begin to synthesize, secrete and respond to cAMP upon a starvation signal

    11 the _ _ino acid sequence directly reflects the DNA sequence in prokaryotic but not in eukaryotic chromosomes

    12 ___ (touch) is required for cells to adhere and form multicellular entities; e.g., ___ between starved myxamoebae allows the cells to stick to each other because starved cells are stimulated to synthesize new cell adhesion molecules

    14 the mesoderm l_n_s the body cavity in coelomates

    16 development is dyn_ _ _ c; the embryo changes dramatically as it goes through sequential developmental stages

    17 multicellular animals that pass through embryonic stages of development

    21 likely stimulated by cAMP to differentiate in Dictyostelium, this cell will disperse to form free-living individual myxamoeba

    22 overseer, supervisor

    23 organogenesis begins as the ectoderm gives rise to the neural ___, which in turn will form the brain and spinal cord

    25 yes, Spanish

    27 the nuclear membrane allows eukaryotes to _ _gulate which transcribed genes will make protein

    28 second letter, Greek

    30 type of control in which a developmental or environmental signal will cause synthesis of mRNA that the cell had not synthesized before

    36 hint

    37 the _ _cheocyte is a sponge cell that can generate all the other types of sponge cells

    38 what you do with your textbook

    39 protein that wraps and organizes eukaryotic DNA, helping to regulate which genes are expressed in which cells

    42 during cl_ _vage, the zygote divides without growth to form a blastula composed of many small cells; DNA and amino acid sequences are colin_ _ar in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes

    43 the _ _ l _ supplies nutrients for embryos that develop in the amniote egg

    45 mesoderm is _ _dimentary in the Radiata

    46 in _ _ogamous sexual reproduction, the haploid gametes are similar in size, shape and motility

    49 the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ia include deuterostomes and protostomes; the group gets its name because in all species within the group, the left and right sides are mirror images of each other

    53 acoelomates have __ body cavity; Parazoa have __ germ layers; prokaryotes have __ nucleus

    54 during prokaryotic division, daughter chromosomes attach to adjacent points on the cell membra_ _ which grows and separates the chromosomes

    55 this outer germ layer formed during gastrulation; it will generate the nervous sytem and epidermal cells

    60 ___ cells are set aside from the somatic cell lineage for future reproduction; the ___ layers form during gastrulation

    63 is, for plural nouns

    64 concept, scheme, strategy

    66 abbreviation for a chemotactic substance that causes Dictyostelium myxamoebae to stream together to form a grex

    67 forms pouches during enterocoelous formation of the body cavity; forms a solid block that is hollowed out during schizocoelous formation of the body cavity


    TOP


    1 step on heavily and repeatedly, trample

    2 the ___ is a fluid-filled sac that surrounds and protects the embryo in an amniote egg

    3 the so_ _ _ _ of the neural tube is the ectodermal germ layer; the so_ _ _ _ of the body cavity in coelomates is the mesoderm; a so_ _ _ _ of diffusible cAMP is the myxamoebae in Dictyostelium

    4 s_ _ual reproduction, a combining of genes from different individuals, can be independent of cell division: e.g., bacteria exchange genes through sex pili; paramecia exchange genes during conjugation

    6 an environmental or developmental signal can cause cells to ___ (acquire) new properties; e.g., starved myxamoebae transcribe new genes to synthesize cAMP and cell adhesion molecules

    7 nucleos_ _ _ _ are formed by histones; ribos_ _ _ _ translate DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; protost_ _ _ _ gastrulate by forming the mouth first; duoterost_ _ _ _ include the chordates and echinoderms

    9 sperm and eggs

    10 b_ _ _er; superior, preferable

    12 Gonium is a ___ (example) in which identical cells have rapidly undergone ordered divisions without growth to generate an organized cellular array, becoming a flat plate of cells.

    13 in _ _ _ _translational control, the ability of a protein to function can depend on its being linked with other proteins; the _ _ _ _erior cells in a grex are prespore cells that will form the next generation of myxamoeba

    15 type of symmetry that typifies jellyfish, corals, hydras and comb jellies

    18 if you remove the rhyzoid from Acetabularia, it is _ _ l _ (has the capacity) to regenerate a new cap, despite the loss of its nucleus, by using mRNA stored in the stalk

    19 the meta_ _a are multicellular animals ranging in complexity from simple flatworms to people

    20 during g_ _trulation, the three germ layers emerge, the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm

    24 an inability for a woman to have children is sometimes refered to as being _ _ _ _ _n

    25 portion of a Dictyostelium fruiting body that will die

    26 in Dictyostelium, cells in a ___ body differentiate to form two alternative cell types, stalk cells or spore cells; the ___ body is also an example of morphogenesis since individual cells organized to form its cohesive structure

    27 _ _A polymerases transcribe DNA to make _ _A in both prokaryotes and in eukaryotoes

    28 in Dictyostelium, the grex forms after amoeba are starved; it migrates into the light where it differentiates to form a fruiting ___ that will produce spore cells that in turn disperse to form new myxamoeba

    29 the _ _doderm is the innermost germ layer; a nuclear _ _ velope characterizes all eukaryotes; ribonuclease is an _ _zyme; in _ _terocoelomates the body cavity develops from mesodermal pouches that extend from the gut

    30 word for what your instructor will do, but without vowels

    31 infants without B's, plural

    32 flagella of Chlamydomonas ___ (are able to) adhere at their tips if the cells are of opposite mating types

    33 cells fated to form myxamoeba lie in the posterior 4/5ths of a fruiting body in Dictyostelium; they are elevated to the tip of the fruiting body by the stalk cells

    34 a hot or iced drink

    35 colon_ _l eukaryotes are collectively called Volvocaceans; Cnidar_ _ns such as the jellyfish are Radiata

    40 in _ _ _nscritional control, a signal causes synthesis of novel mRNA; _ _ _nslational control governs which mRNA is translated; in post_ _ _nslational control, proteins are made but are inactive until linked with other proteins

    41 eukaryotes can regulate which mRNAs are translated by regulating which are passed ___ (a preposition) of the nucleus into the cytoplasm

    44 cell adhesion molecules would be found __ (a preposition) flagella of Chlamydomonas during mating

    47 the _ _ _stalk cells lie in the anterior portion of the grex; if these are removed, cells that would normally form _ _ _spore cells will regulate, change their fate, and develop into stalk cells

    48 in _ _ _ _ _y, one mating type produces large, relatively immotile eggs while another produces small, motile sperm

    50 the blood-sucking parasite, the _ _ _ _h, is a protostome

    51 both the protostomes and the deuterostomes have thr_ _ germ layers during development; in h_t_rogamy, a species forms swiming gametes of different sizes

    52 radial cleavage (abbrev) is typical of deuterostomes

    56 precede with BAN to be petite; end with PER to fiddle

    57 a _ _ _cendant is a child or offspring

    58 to free from something undesirable

    59 insert an O for fashion, an A to create

    61 the _ _diata have only a few mesoderm cells that lie in a gelatinous matrix

    62 intermix with EO for a note, with IE for one who mimics

    65 the disposition of mesod_ _m characterizes different metazoan groups; it is absent in parazoa, sparse in Radiata, and present in Bilateria


Answers, puzzle 1


TOP