aCross Development

a crossword puzzle study guide to Gilbert's Developmental Biology, 5th edition

© Kathryn Tosney
Professor of Biology
The University of Michigan

ktosney@umich.edu


Puzzle 2B


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    3 nitrocellulose ___ is capable of binding single-stranded DNA

    6 restriction enzymes recognize and cleave a specific ____ (place)

    9 if the stringency of hybridization is ____, then sequences that are not perfectly identical can anneal; this principle is used to find closely related but not identical genes

    10 the plural form of _ _lix, is _ _lices

    11 plasmids used as cloning vectors are usually _ _rcular DNA molecules that replicate in baterial cells independently of the bacterial chromosome; they are modified to carry drug resitance (for selection) and an introduced gene

    12 _e_ombinant DNA or _e _ombinant plasmids are plasmids that contain a single piece of introduced DNA such as a human gene

    13 a pr_ _er is a short stretch of DNA used to initiate synthesis; e.g. in making cDNA, we mix in a test tube the mRNA, a pr_ _er, radioactive DNA precursors and reverse transcriptase

    14 after in situ hybridization, spots where complementary cDNA has bound to the fixed cells of an embryo appear _ _ _ck in color when viewed directly through the light microscope

    16 amount of a specific DNA fragment that you could make using the polymerase chain reaction

    17 if you wanted to compare genes in members of the horse group, you would treat _ _ _ra and horse DNA with restriction enzymes and make a Southern blot

    19 radioactive nucleotides are incorporated into a probe to act as a ___ (label)

    20 most techniques of eukaryotic gene analysis are based upon _ _cleic acid hybridization

    21 a gene such as luciferase that is fused with a promoter or gene of interest to monitor its expression is often called a report_ _

    22 a regulatory site upstream of a gene where RNA polymerase binds

    26 Southern blots of DNA from various organisms are sometimes colloquially called "zoo" blots, or "_ _ _ _'s arc" blots

    27 PCR requires a DNA polymerase from bacteria that lives in hot springs; this polymerase functions at a _ _mperature reaching nearly 90 deg. C

    28 a sequence within a eukaryotic gene that is transcribed

    30 ___ (abbreviation) is a method of in vitro cloning that can generate huge amounts of a specific DNA fragment from a tiny amount of starting material

    33 in nucleic acid hybridization, the _ _obe is the strand labeled by the incorporation of radioactive nucleotides

    34 sites on the DNA located before the start of the transcription site, on the 5' end, are said to be _ _stream

    35 technique in which single-stranded nucleic acids (RNA and/or DNA) are annealed to allow complementary strands to form double-stranded hybrids

    40 to scr_ _ _ is to examine recombinant phages to determine which are found in the stage or cell of interest

    41 Northern blots can reveal mRNAs that are specific for a particular germ line, such as for the en_ _derm of a sea urchin

    43 a DNA ___ (type of enzyme) will covalently join open DNA ends to form a single piece of DNA

    45 a _ _ _ _ _virus is an RNA-containing virus that infects a cell and uses the cell's machinery to make a DNA copy of itself that then integrates into the host chromosome

    47 a _ _brid results from the union of two different genomes within the same cell, in contrast to a chimera in which cells with different genomes coexist in the same organism

    48 a P-_le_ent is a naturally occuring transposable element in Drosophila; we can use it to carry genes into a fly

    49 verb often used with reference to gels; as in, "We ___ an electrophoresis gel during our lab excercise."

    50 Antennapedia and related genes are very important to the development of the body ax_ _
    51 a cloning vector has an ___ of DNA replication that enables it to replicate hundreds of times in each bacterium

    52 what bacteria that have not incorporated a plasmid with a drug-resistant gene will do if you grow them on agar containing the antibiotic

    55 can be a denaturing condition during nucleic acid hybridization

    58 a nucleotide found in DNA but not in RNA, twice

    59 one who atones

    62 subtraction cloning can be used to detect genes that are _ct_ve in one stage but not another, or that are _ct_ve in one type of cell but not another

    63 a _ _NA is a "complementary DNA"

    65 mice with stable genes derived from other individuals are called _ _ _nsgenic mice

    66 _ _ _HI is a restriction endonuclease

    67 site near a gene that binds protein factors that act to enable transcription


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    1 short test

    2 in _ _ _ologous recombination, enzymes normally involved in DNA repair and replication will incorporate a mutant gene into a cell in place of a normal copy of the gene

    4 Greek loan word meaning "eating" or "devouring", as in bacterio_ _ _ _ _, a type of virus

    5 a primer has a free thr_ _-prime end to which more nucleotides can be added

    6 in ___ means literally "in the site"; in ___ hybridization allows us to see the positions of specific nucleic acids within cells and tissues

    7 one natural way to get cloned DNA into cells is by using a _ _ansposable element or retroviral vector

    8 a restriction endonuclease derived from E coli

    9 a collection of cloned cDNAs derived from mRNAs isolated from a particular cell type or developmental stage

    11 to clone mRNA from particular cells, we isolate and ___ (change) mRNA into complementary DNA strands, then create double-stranded cDNAs and insert them into plasmids

    14 a Southern ___ is an assay in which DNA is treated with restriction enzymes and the resulting restriction fragments are placed in a gel, separated by electrophoresis, denatured, and transferred to filter paper while retaining their relative positions on the gel

    15 developmental Northern blots simultaneously compare a particular mRNA at several stages; this method can allow us to determine whether a mRNA that is expressed in early stages is also expressed in ___ stages

    18 a particular time notable for its distinctive characteristics; era

    19 as a first step in producing transgenic mice, a gene is introduced into embryonic stem cells in culture and the embryo is placed into the uterus of a pregnant _e_ale

    23 group present on both the 2' and 3' carbons of dideoxyribonucleoside triphosphates; this difference stops DNA chain growth and is vital for sequencing DNA

    24 we adjust the conditions of _ _naturation of nucleic acids to maintain specific matches and to dissociate non-specific matches

    25 _ _nic strength is a condition that can be varied to alter the stringency of hybridization

    26 insert an A for a brief sleep, an I for a brief drink

    29 female religious person

    31 nucleic acid hybridization has enabled us to isolate and amplify specific _ _ _ _s (sites) of the DNA

    32 a _ _ _eoxynucleotide differs from a deoxynucleotide in the disposition of hydroxyl groups; it can be added to a growing DNA chain, but this difference prevents addition of new nucleotides and thus stops chain growth, abbrev


    33 a _l_que is a clear, circular region in a plate of bacteria where phage have lysed the bacteria

    36 entreats, implores

    37 there are several ways to ___ new DNA into a cell, including microinjection, transfection, electroporation and using a transposable element

    38 a ___ blot compares sequences between divergent species

    39 in the gene knock_ _ _ (gene targeting) technique, normal genes are replaced with mutant ones

    42 type of blot that allows us to visualize the timing of transcription for several genes

    43 to break open cells, bacteria or phages; often done with alkaline conditions

    44 to discharge material, or a reverse-transcriptase version of what "temporal" refers to

    45 the polymerase chain reaction can be used to find _ _re (present in small quantities) mRNAs

    46 an _ _ _ _nuclease cuts DNA by recognizing certain sites and cleaving between specific bases

    47 greeting twice

    49 a Northern blot can display the temporal and spatial expression of this type of nucleic acid

    53 _ _ _ _ons are absent in DNA clones derived from mRNAs, allowing these clones to be transcribed in bacterial cells

    54 begin with a P to look closely, an S to see the future, a V to turn away

    56 tails of mRNAs often consist of repeats of this nucleotide

    57 the _ _ _ing of transcription can be visualized by dot blots in which total mRNA is put into spots on nitrocellulose paper and incubated with labeled DNA from a specific cDNA clone

    60 a first step in gene cloning is to ___ nuclear DNA into discrete pieces by incubating it with a restriction enzyme (spell the word backwards, like a reverse transcriptase would)

    61 one way to get cloned DNA into cells is by t_ _ _sfection, a method in which DNA is incorporated directly into a cell by incubating it in a particular solution that makes the cell drink it in

    63 a _ _imeric organism contains cells from a different individuals

    64 genomic _N_ refers to the complete _N_


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