aCross Development

a crossword puzzle study guide to Gilbert's Developmental Biology, 5th edition

© Kathryn Tosney
Professor of Biology
The University of Michigan

ktosney@umich.edu


Puzzle 3A


Blank puzzle #3A


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    1 selective affinities ___ (alter) during development

    6 sound a snake makes

    8 prefix meaning "toward"; as in cells will _ _vance over other cells when they adhere to them only lightly

    10 _ _ _ _helium refers to the cellular organization in which cells are tightly connected to one another in sheets or tubes

    11 epithelial cells can ___ (lose their connections and become individual cells) to form mesenchyme

    14 if mixed cells interact to form an aggregate with the smallest interfacial free energy, they rearrange themselves into the most thermodynamically ___ pattern

    16 big talk

    17 adjacent cell surfaces _ _ _eract during development to localize cells in their proper sites within tissues and organs

    19 insert an A for talk

    20 an undergraduate degree, abbrev

    21 to be contiguous or next to; one cell will ___ another cell and either adhere to it or move away from it

    22 a thermodynamic ___ to explain sorting out is the differential adhesion hypothesis, in which the early embryo is viewed as existing in an equilibrium state until some changed gene activity alters the cell surface molecules; cells then move to restore an equilibrium

    23 opposite of down

    24 cells _ _cognize each other and extracellular matrix by using cell surface molecules

    26 _ _ _ma_ cells are mesenchymal cells of the skin; if randomly mixed with epidermal cells they will migrate toward the center and reconstitute a histologically normal relationship

    29 in the blastula, ___ (number) cells have the same affinity for each other

    31 when amphibian embryo cells from different germ layers were recombined, in __ case did the cells remain randomly mixed

    33 begin with a G to speak baby-talk, an M to speak cow-talk

    34 _ _toderm is a germ layer that would assume an outside position in a sorting experiment

    36 one way in which cells communicate with one another is by using ___ cues, soluble molecules that they secrete

    40 a direction, abbrev

    42 a heavy, radioactive substance, abbrev

    43 _a_ Diego

    44 morphogenesis requires changes in the composition of the cell _ _ _brane (surface); these changes can alter the adhesiveness of the cell and stimulate its movement

    46 stop, or a goal

    48 close or preferential association; differential cell affin_ _ _ is a dominant paradigm of morphogenesis

    49 the __ (last) topography in cell aggregations is independent of the starting conditions

    51 ocean

    52 prefix meaning form, as in "_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ogenesis is the development of organized multicellular arrangements such as tissues and organs."

    54 _ _ bonucleic acid; _ _ bosome

    56 preposition

    58 that is, abbrev

    59 a truth or datum

    61 a cell ___ with other cells by adhering to them or by moving over them

    64 making the _ _ more alkaline can dissociate embryonic amphibian tissues into single cells; normalizing it can then promote cell aggregation

    65 extraterrestrial, one abbrev

    66 a color

    67 in the simplest form of the thermodynamic model, cells only need to have the same type of ____ (sticky substance) on their surfaces; in reality, cells have several types of adhesive molecules that change with time

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    1 insert an O for police

    2 prefix referring to tissue: if you mix dermal and epidermal cells, they will move to reconstruct a normal relation, an example of a _ _ _ _ _typic reaggregation

    3 a phone company, abbrev

    4 unintelligible or foolish talk

    5 during sorting out, interactions form a _ _erarchy (ordered system) as though their associations are based on differential adhesions among cells

    6 a person who secretly observes others to obtain information

    7 if homotypic adhesions (A-A or B-B) are strong but heterotypic (A-B) adhesions are nonexistant, then mixed A and B cells will form ____ aggregates

    8 add an S for a long-eared, patient, sure-footed mammal

    9 a cellular process important to morphogenesis is the ___ and removal of cells

    10 prefix meaning upon, on, over; as in "_ _ _dermal cells will envelop dermal cells when combined with them."

    11 cells can individually _ _tach from epithelia, a process called _ _ lamination

    12 as epithelial cells change ____ (form) and grow, they remain attached to one another

    13 mutineer, insurrectionist

    15 old, ancient, antique

    18 a southwestern state, abbrev.

    20 _ _bonic plague

    25 a diffusible ___ that cells use to communicate could be a hormone, a growth factor or a morphogen

    27 dissociated, individual cells that reaggregate in a rotary culture will form a _ _ _nd ball of cells because they maximize their adhesions with one another

    28 in the sea urchin, vegetal blastula cells ___ their affinity for one another at the gastrulation stage while simultaneously acquiring affinity for protein fibrils inside the blastula

    30 A and B cells sort out when the average strength of A-B adhesions is ___ than the average strength of A-A or A-B adhesions

    31 a northern plains state, abbrev

    32 if cells fail to adhere to one another, they will separate like ___ and water

    35 many cells communicate by direct ____ with one another

    37 the ___ (last) position of reaggregated cells from amphibian germ layers reflected their embryonic positions, with ectoderm surrounding mesoderm and endoderm residing in the innermost layer: somehow cells sort out into their proper positions

    38 negative conjunction

    39 in the sea urchin blastula, cells initially have a high affinity for their neighbors and for the outer extracellular hyaline ___; as this affinity weakens, they gain affinity for fibers in the blastocoel cavity and move inside it

    41 embryonic cells do not _ _tain (keep) a single stable relationship with other cells; they alter their surfaces and change their affinity and interactions as development progresses

    44 molecules secreted by cells will form an extracellular ____

    45 microfilaments, abbrev

    46 _ _doderm is a germ layer that would assume an innermost position in a sorting out experiment

    47 development is a _ua_ (double) process requiring both differentiation of cells and their morphogenesis into intricate and precise arrangments

    50 cells will _ _ _ _ _act sequentially with many different cells during development as their gene expression and the composition of their surfaces changes

    51 a cellular process important to morphogenesis is changes in cell____ (form)

    52 _ _ _enchyme refers to a cellular organization in which cells are unconnected to each other and operate as individual units

    53 the ability of cell to _re_er (favor) adhesions with some cells more than with other cells is based on the balance of adhesion molecules on their surfaces

    55 cells of two epithelia can merge with one another in a process called _ _ _ercalation

    57 mine this, or a western state

    58 during morphogenesis, a cell must reach its appropriate s_ _ _ (destination)

    60 _ _anges in cell affinity are extremely important to the process of morphogenesis

    62 cell surface molecules allow cells to _ _here to one another and to extracellular matrix

    63 selective affinity among cells appears to be important for imparting position_ _ information to embryonic cells


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