aCross Development

a crossword puzzle study guide to Gilbert's Developmental Biology, 5th edition

© Kathryn Tosney
Professor of Biology
The University of Michigan

ktosney@umich.edu


Puzzle 4A


Blank puzzle #4A


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    1 the ___ block to polyspermy is a change in the electrical properties of the egg membrane

    4 mature egg, which has a haploid nucleus and all the material necessary to begin growth and development

    7 the _a_t block to polyspermy is transient

    9 after sperm fusion, microfilaments extend egg microvilli to form the fertilization ___

    11 midwestern state

    12 _ _ _ _spermy is the entry of multiple sperm into the egg;

    14 ____ granules contain enzymes and proteins important to block polyspermy and support cleaving cells; they fuse with the egg plasma membrane and release their contents

    18 the _ _cyte is the term for the developing egg before it becomes haploid

    19 sperm-activating _ _ _tide is a diffusible molecule like "resact" : it binds to sperm, and increases their motility

    22 during fertilization the plasma membranes of egg and sperm will j_ _ _ or fuse, releasing the sperm nucleus into the egg cytoplasm

    23 call letters

    24 egg jelly activates the ___ reaction in marine invertebrate sperm

    27 morphogenetic fact_ _ _ in different regions of the egg will segregate into different cells and direct differentiation

    29 negative

    30 sperm differentiate in the testes, but acquire the ability to _____ while they reside in the epididymis

    31 the combining of genes derived from the two parents; a developmental biologist's definition of this common process

    33 the ___ pellucida is a thickened vitelline membrane composed of thick extracellular matrix; it is typical of mammals

    34 _ _erm are transferred to the oviduct largely by uterine muscular activity rather than by active swimming

    35 the ___ reaction is a modified cortical granule reaction in mammals

    37 type of fish

    39 functions to transmit genes from parent to offspring

    45 after the cortical reaction, additional sperm entry is _ _ _e or nonexistent

    46 _ _K is a mouse sperm kinase that binds to zona pellucida proteins; it may initiate the mouse acrosome reaction by phosphorylating target proteins

    48 this type of nuclei acid chain lies dormant until after fertilization

    50 initially thought to be parasitic organisms in the semen; spell it without a vowel

    52 not difficult

    54 _ _ _ _ _duction is the creation of new organisms

    55 a type of cherry

    57 one ___(function) of fertilization is to transmit genes from parent to offspring; another is to initiate in the egg cytoplasm those reactions that permit development

    58 _ _ _ _ _filaments are necessary for cells to divide or extend microvilli

    59 _o_ospermy is a normal situation in which one sperm enters the egg and the haploid nuclei fuse

    60 formerly thought to contain a "homonuclus", a preformed being

    64 in the z_ _ _ reaction, a fertilization membrane doesn't form

    65 the ___ vesicle is a structure in sperm derived from the Golgi apparatus; it contains enzymes to lyse the outer egg surface

    66 mechanical, permanent block to polyspermy

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    1 _ _llicular cells nourish the developing egg and then form the cumulus

    2 the _xo_eme is a major portion of the flagellum

    3 a _p_rm contains a bag of enzymes to enter the egg.

    5 place where the author of these puzzles works, abbrev

    6 _ _ _ _ _filaments are intracellular cables formed by polymerizing actin

    7 cumulus cells are a layer of ovarian _ _llicular cells that remain around the egg after ovulation

    8 the ___ block to polyspermy is due to cortical granule fusion with the egg plasma membrane

    9 for final maturation or _ _ _ _ _ _tation, mammalian sperm must reside in the female reproductive tract for some time before they can bind to and fertilize the egg

    10 indicates an unhappy cow

    12 the ___ membrane regulates ion flow in the egg

    13 add a u for yourself

    15 the cortex is a thin region of cytoplasm along the ___ (edge) of the egg, adjacent to the membrane

    16 a type of music, anagram

    17 egg jelly activates the _ _ _osomal reaction in marine invertebrate sperm

    20 enzymes released from the cortical granules will dissolve the vitelline posts that conn_ _t the vitelline envelope to the cell membrane; as water rushes in, the envelope expands and forms the fertilization envelope

    21 substances in the oviducts can hy_e_activate sperm, greatly increasing their activity

    25 number of cells in a bird's egg before fertilization

    26 white ___, a team

    28 the acrosome and nucleus constitute this part of the sperm

    31 the flagellum is a complex motile structure that many of these use to move; a few others lack flagella and move by crawling

    32 proteins and other materials stored in the egg to supply energy and animo acids

    33 two of the last sandwiching one of the first

    34 Californian city

    35 _ _lch; zero

    36 dy_e_n is a protein attached to microtubules in flagella that provides force for propulsion

    37 during the ___ granule reaction, the vitelline membrane alters into the fertilization membrane and attached sperm are released

    38 ZP-3 is a protein _ _ the mouse zona pellucida that binds sperm and then initiates an acrosome reaction (preposition)

    40 if more than one sperm enters the egg, the embryo will _ _ _ely develop normally

    41 ribosomes and _ _ _A are stored in the egg for protein synthesis

    42 the _ _ _ _somal process is a finger-like extension of sperm proteins that emerges early in fertilization

    43 an obvious difference between sperm and egg is the difference in s_ _e; the sperm loses most of its cytoplasm while the egg stores many components

    44 contains a haploid nucleus

    47 the _ _ _ _te is the diploid, fertilized egg

    49 egg jelly activates the _c_osome reaction in marine invertebrate sperm, causing extension of the _c_osomal process

    50 initially thought to be parasitic organisms in the semen

    51 the fast block to polyspermy will _ _ecede the slow block

    53 ___ pellucida is a thickened vitelline membrane typical of mammals

    55 _ _ _din_ are acrosomal proteins that mediate species-specific recognition between sea urchin sperm and eggs (plural)

    56 of the layers around the egg, the vitelline membrane forms an in_e_ layer, connected to the plasma membrane

    58 che_ _taxis (attraction) is important in the sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata, where the eggs release a diffusible chemical, resact, to attract sperm

    60 the _l_w block to polyspermy is due to cortical granule fusion with the egg plasma membrane

    61 the _la_ma membrane regulates ion flow in the egg

    62 the zona reaction would occur in p_ _ple during fertilization

    63 _RN_ is present in the egg but lies dormant until after fertilization


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