How to emphasize your message.

    © Kathryn Tosney
    Chair of Biology
    The University of Miami

Tosney home page
Society for Developmental Biology

9. Differentiate data, summaries,
and conclusions.

Step beyond merely stating the results.

    Commit yourself

    Be bold and explicit

Summaries merely restate results;
conclusions interpret the results and identify their significance.

In the conclusion section, do not merely repeat the results; state the interpretations.

    Make the strongest statements your data will support. Why soft-peddle exciting findings?

    Make the title as explicit as you can.
    Go beyond stating “The effect of X on Y.” If you found an interesting effect, then
    identify it explicitly in the title.


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examine positive series in order:
next: page 10 of positive examples

or compare corresponding examples:
negative example, page 9